A Glimpse into Politics of the Industrial Revelution to the Globalization of Democracy

The political system and political corrosion: from the Industrial Revolution to the globalization of democracy

June 23, 2015 

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The importance of the book in his presentation of the state of democracy and the political system across the world, starting with the United States of America through to the Arab world through Asian countries, and European, and African, as Fukuyama explains the reasons for the political erosion and the decline of democracy and provides the appropriate recipe to accompany the challenge of globalization and the main characteristics of the strong state and modern-based governance effective. Moreover, you can insert a vision of the writer of the Arab world in the context of the ideas and opinions of an American group with a high influence; where Fukuyama belongs to the neo-Orientalists who interpret the Arab phenomena differently from thinkers of the Arab world, is also an adviser to the current right-wing in the United States of America and one of the supporters of the political programs the Republican Party and neo-conservatives, he fell next to figures Kdak Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld on the draft New American Century in 1997, in spite of his announcement not to elect George W. Bush in front of John Kerry and his support for Barack Obama in front of John McCain.

The book addresses the key issues can be summarized in several axes, it began offering a comprehensive reading about the reality of democracy in various parts of the globe, focusing on many of the hot spots, such as: democratic transformations in the Arab world, and political transition in African countries, Europe's leading democracy and models. Author has treated this axis through the characterization of the state of democracy each region reviewing the current variables with diving in the concrete experiences of democratic change as a case of both Egypt and Tunisia and draw for many of the lessons of good practices or in the words of the writer for European models. The second axis relates to the study of the writer of the exercise of democracy in the United States of America; where criticizing the principles established by the Founding Fathers, considering it as surpassing blame the American elites, represented by the political parties and pressure groups, the leveling of political practices and emptied of its democratic content. In so doing, it motivates us to review what had prevailed for the American model as a criterion for democracy as inclusive of representative democracy, and participatory, and direct. In addition to the recent focus of the book discusses the system of democracy with the concept of the state in terms of identity and purpose, and their contribution to building the civilization of the nation.

On this basis, during the Address Book of the reality of democracy in the world, Fukuyama limp on the Arab region through the chapter titled «of 1848 to the spring of Arabs», explaining what happened from popular revolutions as the result of an improvement in the levels of education and economic openness has produced a middle class conscious and hungry for the values ​​of freedom and the principles of democracy; thus stumbling block standing in front of the continuation of authoritarian regimes and military dictatorships. The writer states that «such demonstrations Ukraine before, were demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt want free governments, the rulers represent the people ....» He also praised the region as people tired of the political deadlock in which, it was better than the Arab Spring «spring of Japan», when freedom and democracy by force achieved through the defeat of Japan in World War II, and the imposition of democracy by the Americans, after centuries of rule by emperors. But soon he turned to see the Rosary of the Arab revolutions while regretting the results that brought undesirable systems in the West, but more than the previous regimes were much better to the United States from the outputs of the revolution, concluding this chapter likened the Arab situation Spring Europe which was long, complex and sometimes chaotic and stressing that it «has to be a long time so people know the importance of free elections, and the importance of respecting the majority opinion, and the importance of the protection of minorities .. drop dictators was easy, but, more importantly, planting and care of a cultural environment that respects freedom».

It should stop him, that Fukuyama connect popular uprisings in the Arab world wide middle class only and this is a big omission for a range of events from unfolding political defects in the prevalence of one commander's unique power and party system Almtogl in the state apparatus with the demise of the social contract link between the ruler and the ruled to regulate the matter year, then the absence of political legitimacy through the dominance of security concern on the economic efficiency and development of the project; which led to the demolition of a pillar of right and law, as well as the broad exclusion of the rest of the political actors and the community, in addition to the problem of distribution unjust wealth and waste of the capabilities of natural and human rights and the cognitive state in the depths of poverty, ignorance and disease, greet in front of the mountains of the money earned by businessmen corrupt close to the power and the fields of the need for lead price destitute families, and young people suffering from unemployment and weak wage and health care; resulting in bridging the gap in spatial structure between the urban area and rural areas, and then in al-Turabi distribution between the center and the party as well as in community structure between men and women and between rich and poor.

On the other hand, noted writer transitional experience in Tunisia and in line political between what he called: moderate Islamic parties and political groups secular formulation is based on the rule of law, a democratic constitution, as Fukuyama stressed that Islam is not the enemy of democracy, and that Islamic parties were a good example of the strong demand for political participation . While Takovah of the future of the African continent expressed in the absence of stability and the persistence of dictatorship and sectarian tendencies within many countries, adding that the democratic rotation stable political parties to power something solid in some African countries such as Ghana, in contrast to other countries, such as Liberia, Sierra Leone, and the Republic of Central Africa, which is facing huge obstacles threaten its unity and community fabric. The writer refers to it in the case of these countries must consolidate the concept of a system that has the power and the corner of the resolution even if the autocrat, in a document to the fact that the greed of the colonists, and the nature of climate and geography, and ethnic feuding impede the democratic process and destroy the state structure.

It is noted in this regard, that the writer commends the existence of systems even if they are authoritarian because they -hsp Roah- is the safety of the state valve, and this is contrary to the truth to justify blurs the essence of the State known to Jean-Jacques Rousseau as an area in which human achieves beyond the cosmic existence of human rights and forgetting the pillars of the state of the need to establish a democratic system regulates the power, and peaceful trading on governance, and to ensure that multi-party political participation, increase that the state immunization integrated Chiefs democratic system protects it from deviations and behaviors authoritarian, and leads them out of the cycle of community ties that do not accept the other Kalossaah and dependency.

In a related context, we see that the writer expressed in previous writings about that democracy is the fate of the world and the fate of history, falling in the analysis of the situation in the Third World, ignoring that the state of democracy is the basic building block in the consecration of citizenship society through the embodiment of public rights and individual freedoms, and the most important: civil and political rights and freedom of opinion and expression, which aims to lack of resampling home in the party or tribe or sect and that there is no minority in the community, but equal shareholders and citizens in national decision-making.

On the other hand, the author addresses the issue of democracy in the United States of America personalized crisis represent the current reality, show their impact in the decay of the middle class, and social differences in the steady income, and extremism with special interests of political parties and pressure groups. And it offers the writer barbs American elite, accusing it of complicity in turning democracy into Vioukratih, make American political institutions in the erosion resulting from the political polarization of the parties on ideological grounds and the use of interest groups the right of veto in policies that did not fit; and this, disintegrate Democratic Action mechanisms and refers in particular to " Madisonian "that characterize the American constitutional law, pointing out that the principles established by US law ineffective and harmful, especially the separation of powers which requires the presence of confidence as a key factor between political rivals to find a consensus to meet the interests of the conflicting parties but not necessarily serve the public policy of the state. As such, Fukuyama recommends parliamentary system modeled on Britain, where the Council of Ministers and the President bears the responsibilities and powers of strategy outweigh the legislative authority; thus raising the efficiency of the government in the industry and decision-making.

At the same scale, the writer comes to the use of the term «Alvioukratih» refers to the right of veto «veto» which has become used by pressure groups; which prevents the achievement of the balance between state institutions seeking to secure a permanent and mutually controlled continuous evolution and straighten the track. The author accuses the US elite cronyism and resorting to some rather than efficiency in the appointments involving state institutions, highlighting that the use of friends and family hurt a future regulations and be one of the features of eclipse, and gives the writer are many examples, including: the Han dynasty in China, and the Janissaries in the Ottoman Empire, and senior staff in the system old in France. In this regard, Fukuyama turn against the neoconservatives who Nazarem and spoke on their behalf for years and preached in the previous author "end of history" that they who will receive the reins of power in the United States of America, and that their wishes in the reformulation of the world map of American force will be achieved through the imposition of hegemony under new slogans such as creative chaos and soft power, to come back asking pessimism about the future of these groups under the American society governed by dislocation and international competition which sees evil coming from China and Russia.

On the same token, the author addresses the issue of democracy in the European Union, saying that the totality of the European countries live a good democratic state but not sufficient to improve government performance, and considered that the European Union is suffering from a lack of political efficiency due to the bad distribution of powers. What is meant here, we find available on the Union's institutions and broad powers, but in the fields of employ inappropriate while there is the absence of the authorities for other concerns. And gives the writer an example that can center the European Union in Brussels to worry people constantly enact laws on agricultural products, but his authority is weak Shall were not Gaibh- on fiscal and monetary policy compared to the United States of America, something that is evident in the euro experienced by the countries of crisis Union. And dive writer in the detection of the veil from the disadvantages of the European Union embodied blatantly in European identity; the writer recorded major failure in creating a common European identity is able to involve all EU components in the umbrella project, based on a sense of solidarity and the spirit of sacrifice for others, wondering Author: If the national identity means a person willing to die for the larger group, it is ready to die for the European Union at the moment?

It must stop him is touched by the Department of State and how to establish a culture of the nation, went writer of the premise that there is no way to flourishing democracy nor to the success of the capitalist market economy, but in the presence of state with first efficient administration, and secondly to open itself to the times, and thirdly the confidence of citizens . Author and excludes the achievement of the state of that efficiency, states have become bureaucratic and burdened with the laws and become national wealth most important then of production distribution, excluding East Asian countries which praised them, especially South Korea and Japan, which have a strong track record in providing corporate governance characterized by quality thanks to the influence Confucian. A country, like Japan, is able to update itself quickly thanks to the strong heritage of the government's mandate extended to cover all aspects of society, highlighting that authoritarian regimes that have poor management efficiency resulting from corruption and nepotism sponsored by the system and its institutions. In light of the above, the author makes it clear that is not enough to establish democracy include powerful bureaucracy; India there are bureaucratic and wide, but there are many rules can not be applied, but some of them; leading to applied randomly by bureaucrats seeking to favor their friends and family. Also refers to the European exceptions succeeded in incorporation effective bureaucracy such as Britain and Russia, highlighting that it has been able to before to become democracies; which prevented draws politicians to distribute gifts and privileges in the context of favoritism, and back to give the United States as a model for countries aspiring to establish an effective government; arguing that The United States has been able to take advantage of the groups have a strong incentive technocrats from individuals for jobs in the new organs.

Fukuyama is that effective governance based on three main pillars: the state, and the rule of law, political and accounting; noting that democracy is not a medicine for every disease; almost benevolent Valootoqratih something fundamental to the evolution of the modern state. In many cases, resulted in the expansion of the right to vote in the elections for patronage system which involves the establishment of political elites to buy votes from newly granted right to vote; leading to greater political control on the part of these elites. The author compares between Scandinavia and some European countries, noting the completion of Denmark in the establishment of a successful management of the state and between Greece and Italy, which are still living in the swamp of patronage.

Speaking from civilization, Fukuyama shows that civilization is not a substitute for wealth or power, but is a mix of wealth, and power, and democracy, adding that security is the illustrious pillar of civilization is the basis of wealth and prosperity classified countries into three types: strong and rich state without democracy it dictatorship, a democratic state without the security of a democratic state is short-term and, finally, a wealthy, strong, democratic state could face the problem of corrosion, stressing that democracy is the «end of history», they will not collapse, but it is being eroded, or can be eroded.

This chapter holds a series of inaccuracies and contradictions in the positions of the writer; Valahadh technocrats as the backbone to the success of management is the abuse of representative democracy; Valtknuaqrat an expert from the elected to run the rule does not govern, and execute the decision nor shall they make. Worse, we find that the selection of technocrats because in many cases they nonpartisan and competence are not taking positions in their lives and the ability to coexist with oppression and tyranny and master the arts of flattery and climbing systems. Speaking about the civilization and the importance of security, we have to clarify that powerful states are where the security forces are in the service of peoples and not regulations and do justice to the oppressed justice without bias for a class on the other, and overlooked by side institutional build civilizations and powerful countries. In a book titled "Why Nations fail? Roots power, and well-being, and poverty in the world, "Americans for economists Darwin ASIMO Ihsanoglu and James Robinson, who considered that the success of nations depends on the presence of the University of institutions is based on the participation of citizens in the formulation of public policy, and political pluralism, and the rule of law, separation of powers and independence of the judiciary with the adoption of curriculum accountability, and accountability, and integrity. Similarly, it launches political and economic institutions University unleashed before national competencies towards free enterprise and entrepreneurship; resulting creative loosen a shadow over the pan home. In contrast, aimed obsessive institutions to the monopoly of a few influential on the authorities without supervision or control, resulting in the exclusion of other community groups, and the demise of the values ​​of equality and equal opportunity; where are curbing creative energies and prevail administrative and financial corruption; which would development and prosperity disability Economic. The authors presented a typical two Koreas: North and South; it is better to live in a political lock the consequent detention of the economic dynamic and the decline of the freedom of trade, eloquently affect the social ladder. While we find South Korea successful in confronting poverty through the provision of investment incentives create financial wealth and job opportunities, as well as its officials to respond to the aspirations of the citizens making them accomplish leaps in quality based on the eligibility and entitlement to human capital development issues in.

In addition, the Fukuyama talk about governance tainted many of the shortcomings; the United Nations know Kmgarbh participatory governance to manage public affairs, based on the mobilization of political actors, and economic and social, in order to ensure lasting well-being of all citizens. The World Bank also over this definition, as a set of governance institutions and processes for the exercise of power and the involvement of citizens in public policy and decision-making design.

The establishment of effective governance is not only the issuance of statutory law, but cross-linking responsibility to ensure accountability and transparency of information associated with, as well as, through the involvement of citizens in the preparation of public policies and national decision-making through communication and coordination between state institutions. Valhokmh is the philosophy of thinking and behavior in the measure, its strategic depth lies in the direct influence on the public life of the citizens.

Finally, Fukuyama considers the prospects for democracy in a good overall globally and that democracy is the direction in which the political history goes also argue that capitalism helps to spread freedom and make individual proud Bmkedzbath, As for the United States of America, the writer acknowledges that American democracy suffers from corrosion a reference the absence of shocks that wake up the people accustomed to stability; where he says: What is happening to the United States at the present time and after a long peace since the end of World War II, the cover of American society once again about the case of the negative, has become a community of hard rule. This leads us to wonder if the writer wants from this conclusion directing American leadership to fight wars renewal of American democracy and the culture of production pumping contradictions that give them the lead in the world.

The book has won the admiration of many experts and academics who see it as realistic reading of the political situation in the world, despite what maligned to author of flattening the data and to maintain the tendencies adventurism on the scientific method, let alone indulge in devising historical imperatives to look to the future, and dealing with the Arab region, the logic of orientalist who does not see it as a significant impact on global transformations.

Francis Fukuyama
Show: Younis Bfilah
June 23rd 2015  Rev - 1
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