Iraq's Destroyed History by isdiots

Men stood behind the discovery of the secrets of the Assyrian civilization

Nineveh / BBC

Two cities remained Kadimtan, Thoian Medfontin treasures of human civilization for about 2,500 years, until it was excavated, detect them for nearly 170 years, before Taatardha destruction at the hands of the organization Daash
In 1872, a man named George Smith, dark nights in the month of November spent, in the British Museum examines the compartments in the clay tablet is broken.
This was the Inscription one of the thousands of pieces found in the excavations then in northern Iraq, and was full of cuneiform texts written letters complex, used in ancient Mesopotamia, and in fact symbols during the life of Smith.
And illustrates some of this number everyday affairs of life, accountants and staff in the Assyrian state, and details such as refraction wheel of one of the vehicles or the late arrival of a shipment of rice, bitumen, while other panels victories recorded King of the Assyrian armies, or spells Omen predicted by priests and placed them in the bowels of lamb presented as an offering .
But Inscription, which was studied by Smith was telling stories, one from the world who drowned because of the flood, and the other from the man who built a ship, and dove launched to look for dry land.
Smith and realized that he read in the version of the story of Noah's Ark, but did not book of Genesis. It is the epic of Gilgamesh, which is an epic poem engraved for the first time on the boards of wet clay in 1800 BC, about 1,000 years before writing the Jewish Torah (Old Testament in Christianity), and even tablet Smith, who goes back to about the seventh century BC is much older than the Early manuscripts of the Book of Genesis.
After about a month later, on the third of December / December, Smith read a translation of this text to the members of the archeology of the Bible Society. Among those who attended to listen then Prime Minister William Gladstone, and this is the first time that the audience listens to the epic of Gilgamesh for more than 2,000 years. Smith raised a fuss read, are treated with some religious conviction, returned them to the proof of the fundamental truth that came out of the Bible, but there are those who saw more disturbing. The New York Times published a front page the next day with an article entitled says that the tablet flood reveals "different from the flood heritage away from that stated in the Bible, which may be legendary like the rest." After less than 15 years of Darwin's theory of the origin of species, the Epic of Gilgamesh came to seem to many like a big Besda in Christian said in the Victorian era.
The story began to find the tablet flood in a place called Tel Kosingq It is a monumental places where state regulation now digging in search of Assyrian monuments.
Came this story in a book by Professor David Damroch from Columbia University entitled "buried the book: the loss and rediscovery of the great epic of Gilgamesh." The town Koysanjaq off the northern city of Mosul on the other bank of the Tigris River, was about 2,700 years ago part of the city of Nineveh, the capital of another of the Assyrians. The State Assyrian Ambrataiwih wide, stretched at the height of its glory from the Gulf beaches to the mountains of Anatolia in Turkey and the plains of Egypt. Over three hundred years, between 900 to 600 BC, the Assyrian civilization was the most advanced civilization at all in those times, and the strength of major technological based on the wealth of merchants and bass armies.
And found the inscription in Tel Koysanjaq Assyrian King Ashurbanipal appears, walking in his garden, while the head of his enemy hanging king of Elam Tioman harvested from a tree.
But the Assyrian civilization were not impervious to invasions, In 612 BC Nineveh invaded and completely destroyed in a rebellion led by the Babylonians, and become the richest city in the world then in ruins. Nineveh's population fell dead or captured slaves, and covered the dirt remnants of the late King Ashurbanipal Library, and carefully written version of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
After about two and a half year later, in the winter of 1853 to raise a man named Hormuz painter this epic poem from the center of the dirt.
Painter grew up in the city of Mosul on the other side of the river. At the time, which was the colonial powers consideration to the local population that they are not more than agricultural workers, or people who cover in ignorance, he was appointed painter by the British Museum, to lead the most important exploration process for the effects of that era, and became more or less the first archaeologist born arises in the Middle East.
The family of a painter of Chaldean Christians, descendants of the ancient Assyrians, who converted to Christianity in the fourth century, and remained ethnically different from the Iraqi population of Arabs and Kurds.
This is the same ethnic group, who were forced by gunmen Daash organization over the past year to convert to Islam or pay a special tax called the tribute in Islam, and be killed.
When old painter, Mosul was a quiet place, and this city was part of the Ottoman Empire, which was gradually eroded, and this city, which was an area isolated background, did not provide a lot of opportunities for the young man has the energy and talent. But in 1845 the painter someone who was not the path of his life met, the Austin Henry Layard. Was a painter at the age of 19 years old then. Assyrians are the same ethnic group, who were forced by gunmen Daash organization over the past year to convert to Islam or pay a special tax called the jizya, or been killed. The Layard explorer arrived in the Middle East on horseback at the end of the thirties of the seventeenth century armed Bmsdsin and a lot of money.
During the period in which arrived in Mosul, was Layard had already watched the temples of Petra and Baalbek in addition to the cities of Damascus and Aleppo Nadtin life, but the effects of Iraq are undiscovered which acquired its core.
He wrote Layard, saying: "clouded with high uncertainty on Assyria and Babylon Caldo (land of the Chaldeans), has been associated with these great names and great cities of the nations ..... Plains seen Jewish and non-Jewish alike as the cradle of their descendants." He added: "With the sunset, I saw for the first time Tel Nimrod large cone which rises in the face of the sky net time of night, and the hill was located on the other side of the river. The impression that his son have (this hill) can not be forgotten Ibda.alvkrh that had crossed my mind constantly is the possibility of a full exploration of the great effects using a shovel. "
After years of negotiation with the Ottoman authorities, enter Layard eventually shovel to the hill in the area of ​​the effects of Nimrod, which lies 20 miles south of Mosul, in the summer of 1845. This is the site where the organization Daash dredging began earlier this month, According to Iraqi officials.
In the first day of the drill, Layard found the initial limits to one of the royal palaces, and a week later began to extract huge slabs of marble, which was a matrix on its walls, which are panels depicting the Assyrian king spaniel power and subservience by his enemies. During the three or four years, Layard discovered the ancient Assyrian civilization, which was not known until then only name mentioned in the pages of the Bible, and it filled the British Museum inscriptions and writings from the scene of the cradle of urban civilization.
When publishing a story Tnguibath in 1849 in the book "Nineveh and its implications", this book quickly became a bestseller.
But by his own admission, it was not possible to accomplish any of these things without Hormuz painter.
British explorer probably knew how to get the financing of Trustees of the British Museum, but is a painter who knew how to deal with the villagers in northern Iraq, and speak Arabic, Turkish, Aramaic, Syriac, Assyrian Christians language.
It was a painter is a person who knew how to be negotiated with the tribal elder, and how to bribe a local governor a gift of coffee, and how to hire 300 workers to draw a huge statue of a winged bull to the Tigris River and floated on a wide range of wood-based panels and near Inflatable goatskin. Painter and Layard was not able to ship everything to the British Museum, as they wanted. Among the sites that were excavated was Nergal Gate in the northern wall of Nineveh, the same gate then a stop militants to organize Daash depicts tirade against polytheism and idolatry that prevailed in the pre-Islamic era. Surrounds the gate what he described as Layard in his book in 1835 entitled "The discoveries between the effects of Nineveh and Babylon," "pair majestic bulls my head man, fourteen feet long meters each and every one of them is not fully Haithma remain despite the presence of some cracks and the effects of the fire."
This was the winged bulls, known as the "Amaso" placed at the gates of Assyrian cities to intimidate enemies and keep the demonic spirits, but the terrorists did not just members of the organization Daash, who smashed the face of Amaso drilling machine.
Having succeeded together to save from oblivion Assyria, Layard universe and painter friendship lasted throughout their lives. And when he was Layard, like many of the Orientalists Europeans, keen to wear clothes East amid a sense of joy, he was a painter make every effort to present himself as a man of English in the reign of Queen Victoria.
The Gap painter Iraq plains wearing a waistcoat and jacket, and converted to Protestantism, which he described as "pure religion of Great Britain." Painter and studied at Oxford 18 months, where he learned to ski. He wrote to his friend Layard "I prefer to be Chimney sweep in England to be Pasha in Turkey." The archaeological excavations strongly depends on the painter, to the degree that made the British Museum appoint this young Iraqi to continue exploration on its own after the retirement of Layard's work in the field of archeology and its transformation into a diplomat and politician in Britain. After his return to Mosul, painter amazing dedication to serve the interests of the new country that chose to live and stay in show. The archeology in the central part of these interests. It competes with the French, the British takeover of the ancient world effects along the Upper Tigris River region.
It was first started drilling in Nineveh French man named "Paul Emile Botta." Although Botha stopped excavation work in Nineveh to focus on the nearby village of "the choir Abad", but it is recognized under the widely that this site is still in the Department of French influence.
In spite of the fact that the painter in his native country, and on the opposite bank of the city where he grew up, but he did not witness the transfer of the treasures of Nineveh, such as the choir Abad, to the Louvre Museum in France. And without any official authorization, and by working under the cover of darkness, was a painter and his team dug in the northern corner of the hill Nimrod. In December / December 1853, after nearly a week of excavation work, a huge part of the earth collapsed and painter heard his shout "pictures!". There, in the light of the moon, this was the stone tablets engraved by more than 2,500 rooms in the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (who ruled during the period from 668 until 627 BC).
Says John Curtis, chairman of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq It is a high-quality art captivating, scenes depicting a lion hunt in the plains of Mesopotamia, and animals infected by arrows King, full of drama views about beats all the inscriptions found previously in the Middle East.
He adds, "the history of the lion hunt scenes back to the most sophisticated in the art of the Assyrian period, as depicted black superbly, vibrant and natural detail. It's the best work of relief sculpture (on the walls) Assyrian." If those stone tablets, but did not contain a chase scene Lion only, it is enough to put Ashurbanipal Palace on the list of the most important archaeological discoveries in the nineteenth century. However, the remnants of No. Ashur Nasser pal library were strewn on the floor of the palace. Painter wrote: "Among these figure (undiscovered) found Chaldean stories of creation and the flood." He was able painter, although his ignorance read cuneiform texts had not learned decoding blades, he found the tablet flood story. Reached boxes containing Ashurbanipal Library to London at a time when he was leaving the school, George Smith. Like the painter, Smith was not a member of the Victorian institution, was born to the family belong to the working class, and began at the age of ten trainees working in an institution Mint coins. The boy was a good painter, but over time began his work, and influenced his imagination actually adventures Layard bridges and monuments that arrived from Nimrud and Nineveh.
The militants organize Daash destroy Assyrian antiquities in Mosul Museum and Gateway Nrgal. By the mid-fifties of the nineteenth century, Smith visited the halls of the British Museum, and watched the cuneiform figure that used to come from the palaces of the Assyrian kings.
And twenty years old when he reached in 1860 was Smith has begun to understand the manuscripts cuneiform and Akkadian language written by most of the figure.
Smith had enjoyed a sharp visual memory, and re-assembling and dismantling of lines of codes Moualem text Invalid almost read from among the hundreds of broken pieces. It was not long until able to Smith, who did not go to university and did not leave Britain, access to the most important discovery in the history and literature of the Assyrian Empire.
Smith encourages recognition of his fellow experts Assyriology his effort, but he wanted the right is something that will make his name famous, something equivalent to an exploratory trip to Iraq.
In November 1872, and while he was Atahjo lines of a poem tablet flood line after line, felt that he had come to discover what. Smith was so excited, he wrote to one of his colleagues as "going on in the room" and that it was "astonishing discovery of these gifts, he began to undress."
Two months later, thanks to a grant provided by the newspaper "Daily Telegraph" and of a thousand pounds, George Smith went to Iraq to resume archaeological excavations that began before. Smith struggled to cope with the high temperatures and egregious acts committed by the Ottoman Empire. It was Smith lacks the glow and discernment painter in dealing with the street. David Damroch says that "he was terrified of the level of hygiene measures, and recoils at the sight of kebabs, and it was very innocent and can not pay (Bkhchih) small easily convert anything."
However, George Smith was undoubtedly a genius, and before his death because of his injury dysentery (Aldicentra) in Aleppo in 1876, at the age of 36 years only, he had published eight basic books on the history of the Assyrian civilization and language, as well as dozens of statements archaeological Home, and served to first revealed the greatest literary work in the world. After Smith's death, re-call the painter to work in the British Museum. Where he continued to work to discover the city of Sippar Babylonian and excavated to reveal the great bronze doors of the Palace Balawat, also sent more than 70 thousand cuneiform tablet to London.
These discoveries were sufficient to make him famous, but the end of the last scientific missions in the eighties of the nineteenth century, Mohi name of Hormuz, a painter from the register.
The proportions of Sir Henry Raulinson, who served as British consul in Baghdad at the time of the painter Tnguibath in Nineveh, the discovery of Ashurbanipal palace for himself. He wrote that the painter was just a "digger" supervises the work. The most insulting of that is something to behold him a Trustees of the British Museum that the painter has benefited from illegal effects that have flourished as a result of excavations in Iraq trade.
Painter, who was very impressed by the behavior of the Victorian elite have been subjected, and gave all his professional life to the service of the British Empire, to a large dose of arrogant treatment, racism and contempt. Britain did not find a publisher for his memoirs, and his death at his home in Hove in 1910, was until his name was removed from the metal panels and guide instruct visitors in the British Museum.
He was the only England who stood by the painter is his old friend Layard, who wrote that the painter "a more colleagues who knew honor and integrity, and a man not recognized at all, including his services."
Says Dr. Lamia Jilani, a scientist of Iraqi antiquities in the University College London: "still remember the painter in Mosul, they are very proud of him."
In Britain, although he did not want his reputation to account fully, the development of archeology generation after leaving the field, to become a note of the systematic and scientific research for knowledge and not greedy imperialist scramble for treasures. Every foot of land has been Nakhla and research are now collected every seed in the ground or the age where found, and measured each piece of pottery were found and analyzed.
As Layard and painter, who Dfthma power imperialism to lift Antiques Art of Mesopotamia by the French, he went to Egerva mud walls of old buildings without even Antbha it, and did not keep their only very rudimentary records, and fought violently at the sites if they have worked in Slowly more and more systematic ways it is possible to submit a great wealth of knowledge about the life of the Assyrians. According to the standards of modern archeology, they were not more than hunters unpaid Treasures from the British Museum.
The head of a winged bull at the British Museum
She says Gilani: "It's emotional, of course, for the Iraqis," for a long time have been coming to the British Museum and see these artifacts and feel they must be returned to Iraq, "but they remain silent at this time, because they see what is happening in Iraq, and they are convinced that these things preserved safe, at least in the British Museum and in the Louvre. "
Not everyone is ready to whitewash the colonial powers. But for all the treasures that transported Layard and painter of Mesopotamia, there were no lines Aabrōha.
And the unrelenting archaeologists snippets of ancient Nineveh hills there was a shrine, the locals claim that the Prophet Younis, and say that it was the place where the burial of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah).
Mosul residents remained, of Christians and Muslims for, praying for centuries in this place and visit him, and all of Layard and painter knew that this site is located above the Assyrian royal palace, but it was a sacred place and can not be a religious desecration.
But the organization "Daash" did not have such a restraint. On July 24, 2014, the dawn of fighters Nabi Yunis shrine with explosives to Aahtmoh small pieces caused the emergence of Cumulus cloud in the sky of Mosul.
And took the thieves who work for the organization of the so-called "Islamic State" digging in the ruins of the destroyed shrine.
According to the Deputy Minister of Tourism and Antiquities of Iraq Qais Hussein Rashid, the pieces of art that came out of the site reached through smuggling into the hands of dealers in Europe.
There are hundreds of archaeological sites under the control of "Daash" now. But under the rubble of the Prophet Younis There extended land did not reach the hands of the archaeologists, that land, which includes the Assyrian king Esarhaddon Palace, which probably contains some or great art treasures of the ancient world literature.

March 24th  Rev-1